Internet Basics

What do we mean when we talk about the Internet?

Unit Goals

To get a sense of Internet history, its evolution, and its current structure, and to gain familiarity with a number of command line and graphical tools and services.

The Beginning

The Internet grew out of the old ARPANET. The ARPANET was created to (1) allow the government to give research institutions only one computer each and let them share computing power, and (2) withstand nuclear missile attacks. The ARPANET was pretty revolutionary; it practically introduced:

In 1969, there were only four hosts:


In the early days, the ARPANET had competitors, such as BITNET, ALOHANET, FIDONET. Little by little, most everything merged into today’s Internet.

Exercise: Okay, okay, the withstanding nuclear missile attack thing is an urban legend. How did it get started? Or is there a grain of truth to it?
Exercise: Each of the first four hosts had something good to share. Utah had awesome graphics capability. What did the other three sites (UCLA, Stanford, Santa Barbara) have to offer?
Exercise: What were the 5th through 20th sites on the ARPANET?

Overviews and Histories

If time permits, read these; they are really good:

Exercise: Read one of the Internet histories above. Make your own mini-timeline with 20 of the most significant, interesting, or suprising items you found.

Here are some events I like:

Here’s a brief video on how it all began:

This one’s even shorter:


Note how networking and our use of networks becomes qualitatively different as devices get faster and the Internet backbone, pipes, core, routers, switches push more and more data through at much faster rates than before:

Areas of Study

The three main areas of study regarding internets are:

Architecture How the Internet is connected, how the hosts and networks are numbered. The ideas behind packet switching.
Protocols What hosts and other devices say to each other.
Services Those things end users find useful.

Internet Architecture

The networks on the Internet are pretty much hierarchically organized. Data from your personal device data may travel:

  1. from your device
  2. through its network card
  3. possibly to the LAN in your building and then to a firewall
  4. to a modem (necessary for long distance communication)
  5. to the Local Loops carrier (cable, phone lines, power, satellite, wireless media, ...)
  6. to an ISP
  7. to the backbone (really high capacity routers connected together with really great physical transmission media)
  8. Then back down the levels to the destination computer

The Edge

The edge (of the Internet) contains the devices (phones, tables, laptops, desktops, printers, scanners, speakers, IoT things) and the routers or cell towers to which they directly connect. Within a home or business network, you have LANs (Local area networks), based on WiFi (~50 Mbps) and Ethernet (~100 Mbps and even up to ~10 Gbps). These LANs often connect to an ISP via Cable, DSL, or Satellite.

Exercise: Read about 802.11. Read about different flavors of Ethernet.
Exercise: What is the typical range for a home wireless router?

There are also WANs (Wide Area Networks) for your cellphones and cars. Range is several tens of kilometers. Speed varies.

Exercise: Research 3G, 4G, and LTE. What are their approximate ranges, and theoretical maximum speeds?

The Core

The ISPs and their interconnections are called the core.

How does an internet core evolve? At first, the networks hook into a central, global, Internet Service Provider (a “global ISP”):


But that's becomes too big to handle, so new ISPs jump in, connected to each other via internet exchange points (IXPs) and peering links:


Then you get a hierarchy with regional ISPs, then big content providers create content delivery networks (CDNs) that sometimes may bypass the usual ISP architecture to get content close to end users.


Exercise: We left the Internet Backbone out of this discussion. Read about it. Find a great picture of it. Who “owns” or “operates” the backbone, if anyone?


The Internet is a world-wide network. It won’t work unless there are some standards everyone can agree upon.

The authoritative set of standard are the Internet RFCs. The describe and define technical aspects of the Internet, including low level and high level protocols, and other standards. RFC is an abbreviation for Request for Comments (RFCs). RFC 1 was written in 1969, and they are still being written today.

Exercise: Find out who the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is. What do they do?

Here are some RFCs and their titles:

Exercise: Only after reading a couple of these, and after browsing a bunch more, you can start reading a few from this list.


A protocol defines the format of messages, how their content is to be interpreted and processed, and how they are to sent and received. The RFCs define ARP, IP, ICMP, IGMP, TCP, UDP, HTTP, FTP, TFTP, SMTP, POP, IMAP, HTTP, DNS, DHCP, VoIP, SIP, and dozens more.

On the global Internet, there are millions of applications, dozens (but still an unlimited number) of different kinds of individual networks (on the link layer), and a few different transport layer protocols (TCP and UDP are by far the most common).

But there is only one network layer protocol: IP. And that is, perhaps, what makes it awesome.


IP is what makes the Internet the Internet. IP is:

These properties make the protocol simple, lightweight, fast, and easy to implement. All the complex stuff like congestion control and resending and sequencing happens at the endpoints, not in the routers. And the simplicity also means it is really easy to implement over any link layer.

Note that the transport layer need not be reliable! TCP is, UDP is not. Why? Not every application needs to be perfectly reliable. Voice and video applications can drop packets and human users will probably still be okay with that.

It’s not trivially simple though, because that would be bad. So IP adds some features:

So the Internet was built with stateless routers, best effort delivery, no centralized control, no work to add networks to it—they just have to speak IP....

“The Internet was done so well that most people think of it as a natural resource like the Pacific Ocean, rather than something that was man-made. When was the last time a technology with a scale like that was so error-free? The Web, in comparison, is a joke. The Web was done by amateurs.” — Alan Kay


You might have heard the phrase “TCP/IP.” TCP and IP were actually designed together back in the 1970s. TCP is a transport layer protocol, built on top of IP. Where IP is connection-oriented and unreliable; TCP is connection-based and reliable. Its design provides a way to deliver packets reliably, in order, without loss or duplication, all on top of an unreliable network layer protocol.


An internet service is used by end-users. Users can use them directly or go through a programming interface.

Categories of services include games, e-commerce, banking, social networking, email, and chat.

Specific services (or applications, even) are FTP, Telnet, WWW, VoIP, Gopher, News, Email. and many, many more.

Common Tools

Let’s get familiar with some tools and utilities for browsing, analyzing, and troubleshooting networks.

Command Line Utilities

The following are good to know:

CommandOversimplified DescriptionInformation
ping See if a host is up Linux • macOS
ifconfig Configure network interface parameters (Deprecated on Linux, use ip instead) LinuxmacOS
ip Show and configure devices, routing, tunnels, and more Linux
traceroute Print the route that packets take to network host LinuxmacOS
dig Get information about DNS LinuxmacOS
whois Internet domain name and network number directory service Linux
nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively Linux
netstat Show network status Linux
lsof List open files LinuxmacOS
telnet Communicate with another host using the insecure TELNET protocol. Convenient for debugging but don’t use it because it’s insecure. Linux
ssh Securely log in to a remote machine Linux
scp Securely copy files to/from a remote machine Linux
nc Do just about anything you can think of regarding TCP and UDP. Connect, listen, etc. LinuxmacOS
w Display who is logged in and what they are doing LinuxmacOS
nmap Open source tool for network exploration and security auditing Linux
tcpdump Dump traffic on a network LinuxmacOS
There are so many more.

And you should check out this totally awesome poster by Julia Evans. Here’s a thumbnail of the poster to convince you that you need to check out the full-size poster:


Most of these will be covered during the course as needed, but we’ll look at the simpler ones below.

Do you prefer detailed technical references?

You might be interested in this index of man pages from Section 8 of a Debian Linux manual.


Sends messages to a remote computer and receives an indication of whether it is alive. From the man page: ping uses the ICMP protocol’s mandatory ECHO_REQUEST datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway. ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (“pings”) have an IP and ICMP header, followed by a struct timeval and then an arbitrary number of “pad” bytes used to fill out the packet.

Here’s an example. I pinged from an AWS EC2 box.

$ ping
PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=1 ttl=48 time=1.18 ms
64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=2 ttl=48 time=1.22 ms
64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=3 ttl=48 time=1.23 ms
64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=4 ttl=48 time=1.23 ms
64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=5 ttl=48 time=1.23 ms
64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=6 ttl=48 time=1.21 ms
--- ping statistics ---
6 packets transmitted, 6 received, 0% packet loss, time 5007ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.183/1.220/1.237/0.018 ms

Network folks immediately turn to ping when there is a failure in communication. All it can really do is help you figure out which parts of the network are unreachable. ping does not know the difference between a computer that is turned off, a computer with a bad network card, a computer that is not running a ping server, or a computer behind a firewall or other device which filters (eats) ping packets (to prevent flooding attacks).

ifconfig and ip

ifconfig gets its name from “Interface config”. This command supports tons of options; you can use it to list all your network interfaces and their settings, assign/remove IP addresses to network interfaces, prevent interfaces from sending and receivings, messages, configure certain interfaces to use different media, and more. On Linux-flavored operating systems, ifconfig is obsolete; use ip instead.

Here are the network interfaces on my macOS machine as I am writing these notes:

$ ifconfig -a
lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 16384
	inet netmask 0xff000000
	inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
	inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
	inet netmask 0xff000000
	inet netmask 0xff000000
	inet netmask 0xff000000
	nd6 options=201<PERFORMNUD,DAD>
gif0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1280
stf0: flags=0<> mtu 1280
XHC20: flags=0<> mtu 0
	ether f4:5c:89:8f:48:4b
	inet6 fe80::803:3448:7939:ef29%en0 prefixlen 64 secured scopeid 0x5
	inet netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast
	inet6 fd07:4a4:8f26::e7:5d1f:732e:db32 prefixlen 64 autoconf secured
	inet6 fd07:4a4:8f26::a52c:a032:efcc:b2c prefixlen 64 autoconf temporary
	inet6 2600:6c50:17f:ab91:146f:8df7:38c9:b51b prefixlen 64 autoconf secured
	inet6 2600:6c50:17f:ab91:b926:8b31:7b90:b2e prefixlen 64 autoconf temporary
	inet6 2600:6c50:17f:ab91:79ef:a4b1:2f92:1765 prefixlen 64 dynamic
	nd6 options=201<PERFORMNUD,DAD>
	media: autoselect
	status: active
	ether 06:5c:89:8f:48:4b
	media: autoselect
	status: inactive
	ether f6:7b:3f:0e:0b:85
	inet6 fe80::f47b:3fff:fe0e:b85%awdl0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x7
	nd6 options=201<PERFORMNUD,DAD>
	media: autoselect
	status: active
	ether 6a:00:01:8b:25:40
	media: autoselect <full-duplex>
	status: inactive
	ether 6a:00:01:8b:25:41
	media: autoselect <full-duplex>
	status: inactive
	ether 6a:00:01:8b:25:40
		id 0:0:0:0:0:0 priority 0 hellotime 0 fwddelay 0
		maxage 0 holdcnt 0 proto stp maxaddr 100 timeout 1200
		root id 0:0:0:0:0:0 priority 0 ifcost 0 port 0
		ipfilter disabled flags 0x2
	member: en1 flags=3<LEARNING,DISCOVER>
	        ifmaxaddr 0 port 8 priority 0 path cost 0
	member: en2 flags=3<LEARNING,DISCOVER>
	        ifmaxaddr 0 port 9 priority 0 path cost 0
	nd6 options=201<PERFORMNUD,DAD>
	media: <unknown type>
	status: inactive
utun0: flags=8051<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 2000
	inet6 fe80::f2a5:944f:38d3:f50c%utun0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0xb
	nd6 options=201<PERFORMNUD,DAD>

And here is a run of the command on a Linux box I spun up on AWS EC2:

$ ifconfig -a
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 9001
        inet  netmask  broadcast
        inet6 fe80::ce2:85ff:febc:f88e  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 0e:e2:85:bc:f8:8e  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 21067  bytes 28044612 (26.7 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 8559  bytes 606885 (592.6 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet  netmask
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10<host>
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 8  bytes 648 (648.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 8  bytes 648 (648.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

Better to use ip on Linux:

$ ip addr
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 9001 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 0e:e2:85:bc:f8:8e brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet brd scope global dynamic eth0
       valid_lft 2902sec preferred_lft 2902sec
    inet6 fe80::ce2:85ff:febc:f88e/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever


Displays information on the path (and the final host) together with trip times. For example:

Tracing route to []
over a maximum of 30 hops:

  1     9 ms    56 ms     7 ms
  2     9 ms     8 ms     9 ms []
  3     9 ms    10 ms    21 ms []
  4     9 ms     9 ms     9 ms []
  5    13 ms    15 ms    10 ms []
  6    15 ms    24 ms    11 ms []
  7    10 ms    11 ms    12 ms []
  8    16 ms    12 ms    12 ms []
  9    14 ms    12 ms    13 ms []
 10    94 ms    71 ms    73 ms []
 11   189 ms   144 ms   145 ms []
 12   180 ms   181 ms   180 ms []
 13   181 ms   181 ms   181 ms
 14   179 ms     *      179 ms
 15   184 ms   184 ms   183 ms []
 16   182 ms   182 ms   185 ms []
 17   185 ms   185 ms   188 ms []
 18   184 ms   184 ms   184 ms []
 19   185 ms   186 ms   185 ms []
 20   186 ms   208 ms   187 ms []
 21   189 ms   207 ms   187 ms []
 22   210 ms   186 ms   188 ms []
 23   186 ms   186 ms   187 ms []

Some machines have traceroute disabled to prevent flooding attacks.

See for a list of links to sites that have made traceroute services from their hosts available to you on the web.

The description, number of options, and the large amounts of information output by this command can be found in the man page, do check it out.


The domain information groper. Performs name to address lookups by querying DNS servers. Similar commands include nslookup and host.

From the man page: dig (domain information groper) is a flexible tool for interrogating DNS name servers. It performs DNS lookups and displays the answers that are returned from the name server(s) that were queried. Most DNS administrators use dig to troubleshoot DNS problems because of its flexibility, ease of use and clarity of output. Other lookup tools tend to have less functionality than dig.

Here’s a run:

$ dig any

; <<>> DiG 9.10.6 <<>> any
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 28185
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 9, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 9

; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 512
;			IN	ANY

;; ANSWER SECTION:		7200	IN	NS		7200	IN	NS		7200	IN	NS		7200	IN	NS		900	IN	SOA 1 7200 900 1209600 86400		60	IN	A		60	IN	A		60	IN	A		60	IN	A

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:	7200	IN	A	7200	IN	AAAA	2600:9000:5304:ab00::1 7200	IN	A 7200	IN	AAAA	2600:9000:5306:5100::1	7200	IN	A	7200	IN	AAAA	2600:9000:5301:da00::1	7200	IN	A	7200	IN	AAAA	2600:9000:5302:1700::1

;; Query time: 38 msec
;; SERVER: 2607:f428:ffff:ffff::1#53(2607:f428:ffff:ffff::1)
;; WHEN: Sun Jan 27 12:22:56 PST 2019
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 479


Gives information on your machine's Internet connection and activity. Displays network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, netlink messages, and multicast messages.

The -r shows routing tables. On my Mac:

$ netstat -r
Routing tables

Destination        Gateway            Flags        Refs      Use   Netif Expire
default          UGSc          140        0     en0
127                localhost          UCS             0        0     lo0
localhost          localhost          UH             13  1608781     lo0 UH              0     8812     lo0
openvpn-client.vpn openvpn-client.vpn UH              0     8812     lo0
openvpn-client.vpn openvpn-client.vpn UH              0     8812     lo0
169.254            link#5             UCS             0        0     en0
192.168.1          link#5             UCS             3        0     en0     link#5             UCS             1        0     en0        c0:56:27:19:7b:e8  UHLWIir        65       85     en0    995      b4:6b:fc:da:94:72  UHLWIi          1        0     en0    438      e0:ac:cb:65:bd:5e  UHLWI           0        0     en0      a4:77:33:9c:6f:ae  UHLWIi          1     7082     en0   1170   link#5             UCS             1        0     en0      f4:5c:89:8f:48:4b  UHLWI           0        2     lo0
224.0.0/4          link#5             UmCS            2        0     en0        1:0:5e:0:0:fb      UHmLWI          0        0     en0    1:0:5e:7f:ff:fa    UHmLWI          0      588     en0 link#5             UCS             0        0     en0

The -an options are often used with grep to see what’s going on at a cerain port:

$ netstat -an | grep 3000
tcp4       0      0        ESTABLISHED
tcp4       0      0         ESTABLISHED
tcp4       0      0  *.3000                 *.*                    LISTEN

There are a zillion more options for this command. Defintely checkout the man pages.


Lists open files. From the man page: Lsof ... lists on its standard output file information about files opened by processes for [various] following UNIX dialects [macOS, FreeBSD, Linex, Solaris]. If you grep for the string LISTEN you can see which ports are open for receiving data.

Not much going on on this EC2 box I spun up:

$ sudo lsof -i -P -n | grep LISTEN
rpcbind  2675      rpc    8u  IPv4  17053      0t0  TCP *:111 (LISTEN)
rpcbind  2675      rpc   11u  IPv6  17056      0t0  TCP *:111 (LISTEN)
master   3148     root   13u  IPv4  18899      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
sshd     3286     root    3u  IPv4  20490      0t0  TCP *:22 (LISTEN)
sshd     3286     root    4u  IPv6  20499      0t0  TCP *:22 (LISTEN)

But checkout what I’ve got running on my laptop:

$ sudo lsof -i -P -n | grep LISTEN
openvpn-s    74           root    3u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1aff3453      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
openvpn-s    74           root    4u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1aff0ed3      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
openvpn-s    74           root    7u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1aff2193      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
nfsd        235           root    7u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e16044af3      0t0  TCP *:1023 (LISTEN)
nfsd        235           root    8u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e160486ab      0t0  TCP *:1022 (LISTEN)
nfsd        235           root    9u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e16044193      0t0  TCP *:2049 (LISTEN)
nfsd        235           root   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e16048c6b      0t0  TCP *:2049 (LISTEN)
cupsd       241           root    6u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e219d3dab      0t0  TCP [::1]:631 (LISTEN)
cupsd       241           root    7u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e209f8833      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
rpc.statd   246           root    7u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e16042ed3      0t0  TCP *:1021 (LISTEN)
rpc.statd   246           root    8u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e16049dab      0t0  TCP *:1019 (LISTEN)
rpcbind     247         daemon    4u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e16043833      0t0  TCP *:111 (LISTEN)
rpcbind     247         daemon    6u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e160497eb      0t0  TCP *:111 (LISTEN)
rpc.lockd   249           root    6u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1afbd453      0t0  TCP *:1017 (LISTEN)
rpc.lockd   249           root    7u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e160480eb      0t0  TCP *:1012 (LISTEN)
rapportd    374            ray    3u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e4481e193      0t0  TCP *:57043 (LISTEN)
rapportd    374            ray    4u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e1b0004ab      0t0  TCP *:57043 (LISTEN)
rpc.rquot   434           root    6u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1b06e833      0t0  TCP *:1004 (LISTEN)
rpc.rquot   434           root    7u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e1affd0eb      0t0  TCP *:1000 (LISTEN)
ZoomOpene   456            ray    3u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e41d15ed3      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
redis-ser   469            ray    6u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1c118af3      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
postgres    477            ray    5u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e1b071b2b      0t0  TCP [::1]:5432 (LISTEN)
postgres    477            ray    6u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1c117833      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
epmd        680            ray    3u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1b06f193      0t0  TCP *:4369 (LISTEN)
epmd        680            ray    4u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e1b072c6b      0t0  TCP *:4369 (LISTEN)
mysqld      695            ray   20u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1fe3aed3      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
beam.smp    728            ray   80u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e200bb193      0t0  TCP *:25672 (LISTEN)
beam.smp    728            ray   92u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1eb0b833      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
beam.smp    728            ray   93u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0592b      0t0  TCP *:61613 (LISTEN)
beam.smp    728            ray   94u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d07c6b      0t0  TCP *:1883 (LISTEN)
beam.smp    728            ray   95u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1e40eed3      0t0  TCP *:15672 (LISTEN)
node      22652            ray   26u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e3fea5193      0t0  TCP *:3000 (LISTEN)
Discord   27367            ray   49u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1eb0c193      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
Box\x20Lo 37877            ray    4u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e1d290af3      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
Box\x20Lo 37877            ray    5u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e219d37eb      0t0  TCP [::1]:17223 (LISTEN)
ssh       45883            ray    8u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d04dab      0t0  TCP [::1]:33062 (LISTEN)
ssh       45883            ray    9u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e21273833      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
Code\x20H 69299            ray   34u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e41432453      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
Code\x20H 69300            ray   34u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e4401ced3      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)
mysqld    77599            ray   10u  IPv4 0x50b4f27e43e73833      0t0  TCP *:3306 (LISTEN)
httpd     77620           root   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77628            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77629            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77630            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77631            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77632            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77633            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77661            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77670            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77671            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77672            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)
httpd     77673            ray   10u  IPv6 0x50b4f27e23d0992b      0t0  TCP *:80 (LISTEN)

So I got a webserver running at port 80, a Redis server running at 6379, Postgres at 5432, MySQL at 3306. All those ports are pretty standard. My Discord server is running at 6463. The node process at 3000 is because I‘m writing a React app and testing it locally.

Classwork: Do some explorations with traceroute and netstat.

Graphical Tools

The command line is great, but colorful pictures are great too. Let’s browse:

in class.


We’ve covered:

  • A very brief internet history
  • Internet Architecture
  • The Edge and the Core
  • What and RFC is, what a protocol is
  • Some command line network tools
  • Some graphical network tools